Published On: Mon, Oct 31st, 2016

Let Us Walk You Through The Ethiopian History Before And Now With The current Politics Part 2-5!

TPLF ( EPRDF )  

TPLF was one of armed groups struggling against Lieutenant Colonel Mengistu Hailemariam and the Derg, the junta which lead Ethiopia under iron fist from 1974-1991. Meles was elected member of the leadership committee in 1979 and chairman of the executive committee of TPLF in 1983. He was the chairperson of both the TPLF and the EPRDF after the EPRDF assumed power at the end of the Ethiopian Civil War in 1991. He was president of the transitional government of Ethiopia (TGE), during which Eritrea seceded from the country and a federal Government that is based on representing the nation and nationality of the country started.

Early Life

Meles Zenawi

Meles was born in Adwa, Tigray, in northern Ethiopia, to an Ethiopian father Zenawi Asres from Adwa and Alemash Guebreluel from Adi Quala, Eritrea.[7][8] He was the third of six children. His first name at birth was “Legesse” (thus Legesse Zenawi, Ge’ez: ለገሰ ዜናዊ legesse zēnāwī). However, he eventually became better known by his nom de guerre Meles, which he adopted in honor of university student and fellow Tigrayan Meles Tekle who was executed by Mengistu’s government in 1975.[9] He received primary education at Queen of Sheba Junior School located in Adwa.[10] It took him 5 years to complete the regular 8 years program as he was able to skip grades and join the next level. He then joined the prestigious General Wingate High school in Addis Ababa on full scholarship and completed high school in 1972.

Meles Zenawi (far right,middle) sitting next to Bereket Simon in a 1970 political meeting

After high school, Meles studied medicine at Addis Ababa University (at the time known as Haile Selassie University) for two years before dropping out his studies in 1974 to join other students and form Tigrayan National Organization (TNO) the forerunner Tigrayan People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) in Dedebit, Tigray. Aregawi Berhe, a former member of the TPLF, notes that historians John Young and Jenny Hammond “vaguely indicated” Meles as founder TPLF in their books. Aregawi insists that both he and Sibhat Nega joined the Front “months” after it was founded.[11] While a member of the TPLF, Meles established the Marxist-Leninist League of Tigray.

TPLF was one of armed groups struggling against Lieutenant Colonel Mengistu Hailemariam and the Derg, the junta which lead Ethiopia under iron fist from 1974-1991. Meles was elected member of the leadership committee in 1979 and chairman of the executive committee of TPLF in 1983. He was the chairperson of both the TPLF and the EPRDF after the EPRDF assumed power at the end of the Ethiopian Civil War in 1991. He was president of the transitional government of Ethiopia (TGE), during which Eritrea seceded from the country and a federal Government that is based on representing the nation and nationality of the country started.

Transitional Government 1991-1993

This period was the end of the Derg ruling and time of devastation in Ethiopia. A president in this transitional government would chair a council of 87 representatives. There were many parties that were sharing the government due to the many political and ethnic groups within the country. Meles Zenawi became an interim president at this time from the years 1991-1995. He previously had led the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) which took over the Ethiopian government from Haile Mengistu. After leading Ethiopia as president, in the 1995 elections Zenawi was voted in as Prime Minister (where he remained until 2012).

Meles ZenawiEPRDF (Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front) 1993-Present

In 1995 the elections brought a new order into Ethiopia. The country became divided into regions based upon ethnic lines – though it was opposed by some in fear that it would take away a national unity in the country. There were a total of 14 regions. Property that was previously taken away could be reclaimed. In 1996 the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia was born.

Some fact About TPLF (EPRDF)

1992 – The Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE)also acted to restrict academic freedom. In April it discharged 42 professors from their positions at Addis Ababa University, informing them that their services were no longer needed due to reorganization. Another 38 professors were placed on probation.The Government dismissed the professors without an investigation by relevant university departments or the administration as dictated by custom and,in the case of tenured professors, by law. The professors were also denied severance pay, and some may lose       their pensions. Credible reports indicated that some of the professors were fired for expressing antigovernment views. Although by May as many as 65 private publications (weekly tabloids and monthly magazines) but nowadays only remain less than
source: http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/ERC/democracy/1993_hrp_report/93hrp_report_africa/Ethiopia.html

1993 –   From the start the new regime has supported the independence of Eritrea, which is achieved in 1993.

1994 –  The New constitution divides Ethiopia into ethnically-based regions.espacialy
Article 39 Rights of Nations,Nationalities,and Peoples
1.Every Nation,Nationality and People in Ethiopia has an unconditional right to self-determination,including the right to secession.

1999 – By mid-1999 it is calculated that the confronting armies number some 400,000 men and that 50,000 soldiers have died. Just as in World War I, it seems hard to understand why?
source :historyworld.net

2003 -In the Regime of the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF)
15 000 000 people were starved (But in the regime of king 500 000 also in the regime of Derg 5 000 000 people were starved)

2004 -January February – Nearly 200 killed in ethnic clashes in isolated western region of Gambella. Tens of thousands flee area.

2004 – March Start of resettlement programme to move more than two million people away from parched,over-worked highlands.

2004 – August Twenty years after the devastating famine in 1984, Ethiopia still faces food security crises. In 2003, up to 15 million people were considered food insecure

2005 – March US-based Human Rights Watch accuses army of “widespread murder, rape and torture” against Gambella region’s ethnic Anuak people. Military angrily rejects charge.

2005 -May Disputed multi-party elections lead to violent protests over months.

2005, June, 8, police shot 42 people gathering at the Piazza and Merkato markets of Addis Ababa
During a demonstration in Addis Ababa on 8 June, security forces arrested thousands of persons,
mostly linked to the opposition, who were accused of spreading “political unrest”

2005  Ethiopian police massacres !
Protests of the results, led by Coalition for Democracy and Unity, began on November 1, 2005,
and have prompted more than 60,000 arrests. Live gunfire from government forces has been directed at protesters and bystanders, killing at least 42. A number of policemen were also killed suggesting that violence was not all on the side of the state.Massacre claims and public inquiry

2005 -The ruling party, EPRDF was declared winner by the election board in 2000, and then again in 2005, by amidst protests and riots that led to the death of many Ethiopians. Hundreds of political leaders  some of whom were elected to parliamentary positions– were arrested in connection with these protests

2006 18,Oct. the draft report of a 10-member public inquiry into election-related unrests was released to Associated   Press (AP). It concludes that a total of 199 people (193 civilians and six policemen) were killed  and 763 were injured, a significantly higher figure than the Ethiopian government’s claim that 61 civilians and seven   policemen were killed
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethiopian_general_election,_2005

2006, February  hundreds political remained in custody, About 119 people are facing trial including journalists for defamation and opposition party leaders for treason. Human rights organisations have raised concerns over the well-being of some of these prisoners. However 8,000 prisoners have been freed. Concerns about the implications of these trials for the freedom of the press have also been raised.According to the US Department of State 2009 human rights report, there are hundreds of political prisoners in Ethiopia.

2007  Three Million (3 000 000) Amara Missing ? An Analysis based on the 1994 and the 2007
Ethiopian Population Censuses
source: http://nazret.com/blog/index.php/2015/03/24/ethiopia-three-million-amara-missing

2007 june ቦን፧ ሱዳን ከኢትዮጵያ መንግሥት የእርሻ መሬት ስለማግኘቷ፧

የኢትዮጵያ መንግሥት በምዕራባዊው ኢትዮጵያ ሱዳን ድንበር አካባቢ የኢትዮጵያ ይዞታ የነበረ መሬት ብዙዎች ባላወቁት ሁኔታ
ለሱዳን አስረክቧል የሚለውን ዜና የሱዳን መንግሥት ባለሥልጣናት አረጋገጡ። ባለፈው ዓመት ሰኔ 26 ቀን 1999 ዓ ም፧(2007 Gc)
የምሥራቃዊው ሱዳን ጠቅላይ ግዛት ኧል ገዳሪፍ አስተዳዳሪ አብዱልራህማን ኧል ኪዲር በዚያው ዕለት የተሰበሰበ የሱዳንና የኢትዮጵያ የጋራ
ኮሚቴ 17  የኢትዮጵያን መንደሮች ለሱዳናውያን የማስረከብ እርምጃውን ይጀመራል ሲሉ ካስታወቁ ወዲህ የኢትዮጵያና የሱዳን ድንበር ጉዳይ ኮሚቴ የተሰኘ የኢትዮጵያውያን ድርጅት በተደጋጋሚ የኢትዮጵያ መሬት ለባዕድ መንግሥት ሊሰጥ ነው የሚል ማስጠንቀቂያ መልእክት ሲያሰማ መቆየቱ ተመልክቷል። ኮሚቴው፧ መሬቱ ለሱዳን ተሰጥቷል ሲል ያወጣውን መግለጫ የሱዳን መንግሥት ባለሥጣናትም አረጋግጠዋል። በኢትዮጵያ የሱዳን ኤምባሲ አማካሪ ምስተር መሐመድ ሐሰን ባቢኬር፧….«ይህ የሁለቱን አገሮች ድንበር ለማካለል፧ በመካሄድ ላይ ያለ ተግባር ነው። ነገር ግን ይህ የሱዳን መንግሥት ያገኘው ያተረፈው መሬት ሳይሆን የሱዳን  መንግሥት ቦታ የነበረ ነው። በሁለቱ አገሮች መንግሥታት መካከል ቀጣይነት ያለው የረጅም ጊዜ ድርድር ሲካሄድ ቆይቷል። እናም አሁን ነው ይህን ጉዳይ እልባት እንዲያገኝ ያደረጉት።
«የሱዳን ጦር ሠራዊት ኢትዮጵያ ግዛት ውስጥ ገብቶ የኢትዮጵያውያንን የእርሻ መሬት እንዲይዝ ተደርጓል። 30 ገደማ የሚሆኑ ኢትዮጵያውያንን ሱዳኖች አሥረው መውሰዳቸው ይነገራልና ለምንድነ ነው ይህን የመሰለ የኃይል እርምጃ የምትወስዱት? ተብሎ ለቀረበላቸው ጥያቄም ሲመልሱ።…..
«ይህ ሐሰት ነው። እውነት አይደለም፧ በፍጹም! መልሴ በጣም ግልጽ ነው። ከኢትዮጵያ በኩል የወሰድነው እሥረኛ የለም።
source:http://nazret.com

2014 November -The head of the technical committee Abdalla al-Sadig told the semi-official Sudan Media Center (SMC) that the border demarcation between Sudan and Ethiopia doesn’t face any problems.

He pointed out that the length of the border with Ethiopia is about 725 km, saying the process of demarcation is proceeding properly.

Farmers from two sides of the border between Sudan and Ethiopia used to dispute the ownership of land in the Al-Fashaga area located in the south-eastern part of Sudan’s eastern state of Gedaref.

Al-Fashaga covers an area of about 250 square kilometers and it has about 600.000 acres of fertile lands. Also there are river systems flowing across the area including Atbara, Setait and Baslam rivers.

On Saturday, Sudan’s foreign minister Ibrahim Ghandour told the Qatar-based Aljazeera TV that Sudan and Ethiopia are working together to curb the activities of Ethiopian gangs inside Sudanese territory.
source:http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article57722

2008-Although the sweeping margin of the 2010 victory came as a surprise to many observers, the ruling party’s win was predictable and echoed the results of local elections in 2008. The 99.6 % result was the culmination of the government’s five-year strategy of systematically closing down space for political dissent and independent criticism. European election observers said that the election fell short of international standards.

2010– Opposition groups have rejected the election results The United States and the European Union have
both criticized the election as falling short of international standards. However, Ethiopian government officials defend the results as accurately reflecting the mood of the people.

2010,20, July -the Court of Cassation, Ethiopia’s highest court, rejected the opposition’s final appeal
the final report of the EU Election Observation Mission highlighted violations of freedom of expression,
assembly and movement of opposition party members; misuse of state resources by the ruling party; and a lack of independent media coverage. the Prime Minister Meles zenawi described the report as “useless trash” and     the Chief EU Observer was not granted access to Ethiopia to present the final report.
sourcs: wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethiopian_general_election,_2010
http://www.africanews.com/2016/10/31/

2012  January – Ethiopia accused of forcing thousands off their land for foreign investors.
2015-2016 –    18-25 000 000 people are starved
2016  july- Ethiopia security forces have detained thousands of demonstrators and killed hundreds of citizens in the   clashes that occured between November 2015 and July 2016, in response to protests in Oromia that began late last year. In July 2016, the protests spread to the Amhara region, where dozens of protestors have died. Detailed, independently-verified information remains difficult to obtain due to the government’s suppression of independent media and rights monitoring groups. In recent days, the government blocked social media message applications, including Facebook, Twitter, Viber and WhatsApp.

Ethiopia is rated Not Free in Freedom in the World 2016, Not Free in Freedom of the Press 2016, and Not Free in Freedom on the Net 2016.

2016,8 August freedomhouse.org/article/ethiopia-security-forces-kill-dozens-protestors-block-social-media
source:Washington, August 8, 2016
2016 sepetmber At least 500 people have been killed and thousands arrested in the wave of anti-government protests in the Amhara and Oromia regions over  the past months.in sepetmber 2016
The Ethiopian government says it has released about 2000 detained anti-government protesters suspected of engaging in the recent violence in some parts of the country.

2016 october Ethiopia state broadcaster raises death toll to 55 in Sunday stampede; clashes between security forces,   protesters continue in Oromia region

2016,3,October “The deaths in Bishoftu occurred because security forces fired tear gas and live ammunition at a crowd of over a million people celebrating a religious occasion,” said Vukasin Petrovic, director for Africa programs Irreecha is an annual holiday for giving thanks, celebrated by the Oromo, Ethiopia’s largest ethnic group. While firm numbers remain unavailable,eyewitnesses say that the total number of deaths on October 2 may exceed 300
source: Washington, freedomhouse.org

2016,20,October The Ethiopian authorities said on Thursday they had detained 1,645 people since declaring a state   of emergency less than two weeks ago in an effort to quell mass protests and violence
cource: on newyork times
by Reuters october 20,2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Let Us Walk You Through The Ethiopian History Before And Now With The current Politics Part 2-5!